Watson & Crick propose the double helix model for DNA based x-ray data obtained by Franklin & Wilkins.
Perutz's group develop heavy atom methods to solve the phase problem in protein crystallography.
The sequence of the first protein to be analysed, bovine insulin, is announed by F.Sanger. 1969 - The ARPANET is created by linking computers at Standford and UCLA. 
The details of the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm for sequence comparison are published. 
The first recombinant DNA molecule is created by Paul Berg and his group. 
The Brookhaven Protein DataBank is announeced (Acta.Cryst.B,1973,29:1764). Robert Metcalfe receives his Ph.D from Harvard University. His thesis describes Ethernet. 
Vint Cerf and Robert Khan develop the concept of connecting networks of computers into an "internet" and develop the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). 
Microsoft Corporation is founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen.
Two-dimensional electrophoresis, where separation of proteins on SDS polyacrylamide gel is combined with separation according to isoelectric points, is announced by P.H.O'Farrel. 
The National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is established at the National Cancer Institute.
The Human Genome Intiative is started (commission on Life Sciences, National Research council. Mapping and sequencing the Human Genome, National Academy Press: wahington, D.C.), 1988.
The FASTA algorith for sequence comparison is published by Pearson and Lupman.
A new program, an Internet computer virus desined by a student, infects 6,000 military computers in the US. 
The genetics Computer Group (GCG) becomes a privatae company.
Oxford Molceular Group,Ltd.(OMG) founded, UK by Anthony Marchigton, David Ricketts, James Hiddleston, Anthony Rees, and W.Graham Richards. Primary products: Anaconds, Asp, Cameleon and others (molecular modeling, drug design, protein design). 
The BLAST program (Altschul, is implemented.
Molecular applications group is founded in California by Michael Levitt and Chris Lee. Their primary products are Look and SegMod which are used for molecular modeling and protein deisign.
InforMax is founded in Bethesda, MD. The company's products address sequence analysis, database and data management, searching, publication graphics, clone construction, mapping and primer design. 
The research institute in Geneva (CERN) announces the creation of the protocols which make -up the World Wide Web.
The creation and use of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is described.
Incyte Pharmaceuticals, a genomics company headquartered in Palo Alto California, is formed.
Myriad Genetics, Inc. is founded in Utah. The company's goal is to lead in the discovery of major common human disease genes and their related pathways. The company has discovered and sequenced, with its academic collaborators, the following major genes: BRCA1, BRACA1 , CHD1, MMAC1, MMSC1, MMSC2, CtIP, p16, p19 and MTS2. 
CuraGen Corporation is formed in New Haven, CT.
Affymetrix begins independent operations in Santa Clara, California. 
Netscape Communications Corporation founded and releases Naviagator, the commerical version of NCSA's Mozilla.
Gene Logic is formed in Maryland.
The PRINTS database of protein motifs is published by Attwood and Beck.
Oxford Molecular Group acquires IntelliGenetics.
The Haemophilus influenzea genome (1.8) is sequenced.
The Mycoplasma genitalium genome is sequenced.
The genome for Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeadt, 12.1 Mb) is sequenced.
The prosite database is reported by Bairoch,
Affymetrix produces the first commerical DNA chips.
The genome for E.coli (4.7 Mbp) is published.
Oxford Molecualr Group acquires the Genetics Computer Group.
LION bioscience AG founded as an intergrated genomics company with strong focus on bioinformatics. The company is built from IP out of the European Molecualr Biology Laboratory (EMBL), the European Bioinformtics Institute (EBI), the GErman Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), and the University of Heidelberg.
paradigm Genetics Inc., a company focussed on the application of genomic technologies to enhance worldwide food and fiber production, is founded in Research Triangle Park, NC.
deCode genetics publishes a paper that described the location of the FET1 gene, which is responsible for familial essential tremor, on chromosome 13 (Nature Genetics).
The genomes for Caenorhabitis elegans and baker's yeast are published.
The Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics is established as a non-profit foundation.
Craig Venter forms Celera in Rockville, Maryland.
PE Informatics was formed as a center of Excellence within PE Biosystems. This center brings together and leverges the complementary expertise of PE Nelson and Molecualr Informatics, to further complement the genetic instrumention expertise of Applied Biosystems.
Inpharmatica, a new Genomics and Bioinformatics company, is established by University College London, the
Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, five leading scientists from major British academic centres and Unibio Limited.
GeneFormatics, a company dedicated to the analysis and predication of protein structure and function, is formed in San Diego.
Molecualr Simulations Inc. is acquired by Pharmacopeia.
deCode genetics maps the gene linked to pre-eclampsia as a locus on chromosome 2p13.
The genome for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.3 Mbp) is published.
The A.thaliana genome (100 Mb) is secquenced.
The D.melanogaster genome (180 Mb) is sequenced.
Pharmacopeia acquires Oxoford Molecular Group.
The huam genome (3,000 Mbp) is published.
Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium publishes its draft sequence of mouse genome in the December 5, 2002, issue of Nature
International consortium led by the DOE Joint Genome Institute publishes draft sequence of Fugu rubripes
Human Genome Project Completion, April 2003
Human Chromosome 14 Finished - Chromosome 14 is the fourth chromosome to be completely sequenced.
TIGR's Bacteriophage KVP40 as well as ten other genomes have been added to the CMR:
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482, 
Helicobacter hepaticus ATCC 51449, 
Mycobacterium bovis subsp. bovis AF2122/97, 
Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain R, 
Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718, 
Pirellula sp strain 1, 
Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680, 
Shigella flexneri 2a 2457T, 
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty2, 
Wolinella succinogenes DSMZ 1740.

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